1. Arnold, Clinton E., Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002.
  2. Barclay, William, The Gospel of John. Louisville, KY: Westminster Juan Knox Press, 2001.
  3. Beasley-Murray, George R., Word Biblical Commentary: John. Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 2002.
  4. Blinzler, Josef. The trial of Jesus. Newman Press, 1959.
  5. Bromiley, Geoffrey W., The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised. Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1988; 2002.
  6. Jensen, Irving L., John: A Self-Study Guide. Chicago: Th Moody Bible Institute, 1990.
  7. Jeremias, Joachim, Jerusalem in the time of Jesus: an investigation into economic and social conditions during the New Testament period. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1969.
  8. The Mishnah.
  9. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, ed. Gerhard Kittel, Geoffrey W. Bromiley and Gerhard Friedrich, electronic ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1964-.
  10. William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.