1. Alexander, David & Alexander, Pat (Eds.). Eerdmans’ Handbook to the Bible. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1973.
  2. Hastings, James. (Eds.). Dictionary of the Bible. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1963.
  3. Walvoord, John F. & Zuck, Roy B. The Bible Knowledge Commentary, New Testament. USA: SP Publication, Inc., 1985.
  4. Unger, M. F. & Harrison, R. K. (Eds.). The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary. Chicago: The Moody Bible Institute of Chicago, 1988.
  5. Douglas, J.D. (Ed.). The New Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1962
  6. Keener, Craig S. The IVP Bible Background Commentary—New Testament. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993.
  7. Barker, Kenneth (Ed.). The NIV Study Bible – 10th Anniversary Edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1995.
  8. Tenney, M. C. (Ed.). The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. Grand Rapids: The Zondervan Corporation, 1975
  9. Gaebelein, Frank E. (Ed.). The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: The Zondervan Corporation, 1981.
  10. Agnew, B.D. Milton (Ed.). Holy Bible, New King James Version: Personal Study Edition. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publisher, 1995
  11. org (2001-2003). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 22, 2003 from
  12. Henry, Matthew. An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of the Gospel According to St. Mark. Retrieved April 2, 2003 from
  13. Jenson, Irving L., Mark: A Self Study Guide. Chicago: The Moody Bible Institute, 1972.