Setting

The Lord Jesus had completed His public ministry. He now spent His remaining moments with His disciples. The hour of darkness was soon approaching, and the Lord needed to prepare Himself and the disciples for what must take place. The events of this chapter took place during the crucial time of Passover, the feast of great significance in light of the atonement that Jesus was about to accomplish.

Key Verse

(22:15-16; 22:42)

Did You Know...?

  1. Feast of Unleavened Bread…Passover (22:1): “Passover” was used in two different ways: (1) a specific meal begun at twilight on the 14th of Nisan (Lev 23:4-5), and (2) the week following the Passover meal (Eze 45:21), otherwise known as the Feast of Unleavened Bread, a week in which no leaven was allowed (Ex 12:15-20; 13:3-7). By NT times the two names for the week-long festival were virtually interchangeable. [ref]
    2. Captains (22:4): Jewish officers under the Jerusalem religious establishment.
    3. A man carrying a pitcher of water (22:10): It was unusual for a man to carry a pitcher of water, since it was ordinarily women’s work.
    4. Benefactors (22:25): A title assumed by or voted for rulers in Egypt, Syria and Rome as a display of honor, but frequently not representing actual service rendered. [ref]
    5. Drops of blood (22:44): Probably perspiration in large drops like blood, or possibly hematidrosis, the actual mingling of blood and sweat as in cases of extreme anguish, strain or sensitivity. [ref]

Outline

  • Agreement to Betray Jesus
    (22:1--6)
  • The Passover Meal
    (22:7-38)
  • Preparation of the Passover
    (22:7-13)
  • The Last Supper
    (22:14-23)
  • Dispute about Being the Greatest
    (22:24-30)
  • Prediction of Peter’s Denial
    (22:31-34)
  • Warning about Coming Crisis
    (22:35-38)
  • Prayer on the Mount of Olives
    (22:39-46)

Segment Analysis

  • 22:1-6

    1.

    Why did the chief priests and scribes seek to kill Jesus?

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    See 20:1-19.

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  • 2.

    Why did they fear the people?

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    Jesus was drawing a great multitude (21:38). Arresting Him publicly might have caused a riot (Mk 14:1-2).

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  • 3.

    Why did Satan enter Judas? What does it mean?

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    Judas, the keeper of the money box, lusted for money and stole from it. His greed left room for Satan to enter his heart and take control of him. His conscience was seared and became Satan’s instrument. It was only after he had betrayed the Lord that he realized the seriousness of his sin and ended his own life in bitter remorse (Mt 27:3-5).

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  • 4.

    What lesson can we learn from Judas’ downfall, considering that he was once a follower of the Lord?

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  • 22:7-13

    5a.

    What does verse 7 say about the Passover?

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    The verse stresses the necessity for the Passover lamb to be killed.

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  • 5b.

    Why is this fact significant?

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    Just as the Passover lamb must be sacrificed according to God’s decree, the Lord Jesus Christ must also lay down His life according to God’s plan and timing. The sacrifice of Christ was the fulfillment of the Passover (1Cor 5:7). Therefore, it is significant that the Lord instituted the Holy Communion, which serves as a remembrance of His death, during the Passover.

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  • 6.

    From the preparation of the Passover meal in this passage, what lesson can we learn in our service?

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    The Lord is all-knowing and all-powerful. When we do the Lord’s work and obey His will, we do not need to worry even if we seem to lack the means to accomplish our task. The Lord knows what we need in order to carry out His work, and He will provide accordingly.

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  • 22:14-23

    7.

    Which verses in this passage record the institution of the Holy Communion (also known as the Lord’s Supper)?

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    19-20 (cf. Mt 26:29; Mk 14:22-25; 1Cor 11:23-26).

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  • 8.

    According to the Lord Jesus, why should we partake of the Holy Communion?

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  • 9.

    Why is the Holy Communion a sacrament (i.e. how do we know that it has spiritual saving effect)?

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    By definition, a sacrament is an observance instituted by the Lord Jesus in which there is effect of salvation (There are three sacraments in the Bible: baptism, footwashing, and Holy Communion). The Lord Jesus established the Holy Communion and commanded His disciples to perform and partake of it. The bread and juice in the Communion, according to the Lord’s own words, are the body and blood of Jesus Christ. Thus, when we partake of the Holy Communion, we partake of Christ’s body and blood (cf. 1Cor 10:17). This means that we share the life of Jesus Christ. Through this spiritual communion as well as a life of faith in Christ, we abide in Christ and have eternal life (Jn 6:47-58).

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  • 10.

    Explain the phrase “the new covenant in My blood.”

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    In the old covenant, the people of God received atonement by offering sacrifices and through the mediation of priests. The covenant was put into effect with blood (Heb 9:18-22). Without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. But the old covenant was only a shadow of the better covenant, mediated by the Lord Jesus Christ (Heb 7:22; 8:6). The sacrificial system of the old covenant pointed to the ultimate sacrifice on the cross (Heb 10:5-14). Whereas the blood of animals does not take away sin, Christ’s blood redeems us and washes away our sins (Eph 1:7; 1Pet 1:18-19; Rev 1:5; 5:9). Therefore, Christ’s blood is the blood of the new covenant.

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  • 11.

    With what attitude do you partake of the Holy Communion?

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  • 22:24-30

    12.

    How did Jesus resolve the disciples’ dispute and correct their misconception?

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  • 13.

    In what ways can you be like a servant?

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  • 14a.

    What blessings did the Lord Jesus give the disciples in 29-30? Why did the disciples receive these blessings?

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    Receiving a kingdom (29); eating and drinking at the Lord’s table in His kingdom (30); sitting on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (30). The disciples received these great blessings because they continued with the Lord in His trials (29).

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  • 14b.

    What did Jesus mean when He said that He bestowed on the disciples a kingdom?

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    They will be great in the kingdom of heaven and will reign with Christ (cf. 2Tim 2:12; Rev 2:26-27, 3:21). They will eat and drink at the King’s table and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

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  • 22:31-34

    15.

    What can we learn in this paragraph about: a) Satan?; b) Peter?; c) Christ’s intercession?

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  • 22:35-38

    16.

    Why at this moment must the disciples start taking money bags and knapsacks and buying swords?

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    Whereas the Lord had formerly instructed the disciples not to carry money bags, knapsacks, and sandals (cf. 10:4), now He told them to bring these with them and even purchase swords. The clear contrasting instructions show that after Jesus’ arrest and death, the disciples would face much greater danger and oppositions. The new instructions here are more figurative than literal, warning the disciples to be ready for impending crisis.

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  • 17.

    How did the disciples misunderstand the Lord’s instructions?

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    They thought that the Lord was asking them to defend themselves with weapons. But such militancy was in fact against the Lord’s will (Mt 26:51- 52).

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  • 22:39-46

    18.

    What do you learn here about: a) What to pray ?; b) How to pray?; c) God’s answer to prayer?

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    a. 1. That we may not enter into temptation (40, 46). 2. That the Father’s will be done (42).
    b. 1. Kneel (41)—an act of humility and importunity; 2. Be earnest (44)—total involvement of heart, mind, and strength.
    c. When we humbly ask for God’s will to be done, God will strengthen us so that we may have the power to subdue our own will and submit to God’s will (cf 43).

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  • 19.

    What kind of struggle was Jesus going through? Have you ever experienced the same struggle?

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    Denying His own will and overcoming His deep distress and agony (42, 44; Mt 26:37-38)

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  • 20.

    How did Jesus’ prayer become a crucial turning point for Him?

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    He surrendered His will totally in the garden and received strength from God to face the cross. Whereas He was overcome with grief before the prayer, He became dauntless in the face of His enemies and finally claimed victory over the sufferings on the cross.

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  • 21.

    What were the disciples doing while Jesus was praying earnestly? What happened to them later? What lesson can you learn here?

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