1. Holy Bible, New King James Version: Personal Study Edition, ed. B.D. Milton Agnew. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publisher, 1990, 1995.
  2. Jenson, Irving L., 1 & 2 Thessalonians: A Self-Study Guide. Chicago: Moody Press, 1974.
  3. Jenson, Irving L., 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus: A Self-Study Guide. Chicago: Moody Press, 1973.
  4. The Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed. David Noel Freedman. New York: Doubleday Publishing, Inc. 1992.
  5. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. Frank E. Gæbelein. Grand Rapids: The Zondervan Corporation, 1981.
  6. The NIV Study Bible–10th Anniversary Edition, ed. Barker, Kenneth. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House. 1995.
  7. Unger, Merrill F. The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary. Chicago: Moody Press, 1988.
  8. Will Durant. Caesar and Christ: A History of Roman Civilization and of Christianity from Their Beginnings to A.D. 325. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1944; renewed 1972.